Réhabilitations de dauphins (jusqu’en 1993)

Le dauphin Silver, autrefois captif en Angleterre, réhabilité en 1992, aujourd'hui libre et heureux en mer !

Le dauphin Silver, ancien captif en Angleterre, réhabilité avec Rocky et Missie en 1992

 

Cette liste en anglais s’interrompt en 1993.
Depuis lors, de nombreux autres dauphins ont été rendus à la liberté avec succès (Ariel, Turbo, Tom, Misha, Sampal, Jédol, etc… )

Lire à ce propos :
Réhabilitation des dauphins
2015


ariel3.jpg

Ariel et Turbo libérés par Ric O’Barry

 Extrait d’une liste d’exemples compilés par Kenneth C. Balcomb III
Center for Whale Research

DOLPHIN RELEASES

« This document is dedicated to « Keiko », « Junior », « Tanouk » and « Lolita » , as well as the many smaller captive cetaceans which have been and are maintained in solitary confinement and inadequate facilities devoid of significant educational benefit to the public or conservation benefit to their species. They could be returned to the benefit of all ».
Kenneth C. Balcomb III

Dolphin Releases

Cet hommage est particulièrement déchirant, car si Junior et Tanouk ont litéralement été assassinés, la réhabilitation de Keiko fut si mal gérée qu’il en mourut et qu’en 2015, Lolita était toujours prisonnière du Seaquarium de Floride après 45 ans de détention.


 

1993. Flipper – a male bottlenose dolphin released off Laguna, Brazil after approximately ten years of captivity (Rollo, 1993).

Since release, Flipper has been seen along at least 155 miles of coastline, often in the company of other dolphins. His most recent sighting was in early 1995. Returned to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 10 years; followup
successful.

1992. TT-745 – a male bottlenose dolphin captured on 20 July 1988 in Mississippi was inadvertently released by the U.S. Navy on 2 June 1992 at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Not reported whether returned to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 4 years; no followup. There should be more information available on this animal through FOIA request.

1992. TT-682 « Scanner »- a male bottlenose dolphin captured on 08/30/84 was inadvertently released by the U.S. Navy on 1 May 1992 at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Not reported whether returned to native habitat. Good veterinary records at first in Hawaii, later in Key West Florida to 4/24/92; ran off with a pod 4/22/92, but apparently was recalled or voluntarily returned; transferred to Morehead City NC on 4/28/92. Presumably, Scanner went AWOL off North Carolina.

In 1988 this dolphin was reported to have exhibited skin lesions similar to those observed in east coast strandings; should seek samples. Dr. Greg Bossart signed veterinary report of 3/17/88 indicating skin dermatitis of viral etiology. One dolphin; Captive 8 years; no followup.


1992. Bahama Mama – an adult female bottlenose dolphin inadvertently released after at least seventeen years of captivity (Claridge and Balcomb, 1993).  No official followup occurred, however this dolphin was positively photo-identified up to eight months after release in the company of wild dolphins in the Bahamas. Assumed returned to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 17 years; followup successful.


1992. Rajah (male), Nero (male), Frodo (male), Rani (pregnant female), Echo (juvenile daughter of Rani), Mila (female) and Luka (her calf), Nakita (juvenile daughter of Mila), Kia (juvenile) – nine bottlenose dolphins in a socially perturbed group released 13 January 1992 off Perth, Australia, after eleven years of captivity (Gales and Waples, 1993).

Rajah, the lone male, followed the research boat out to sea and within ten minutes had his first encounter with wild dolphins, two
subadults.

« Rajah seemed to have no problem keeping pace with the wild dolphins… »

Eleven days later, he approached the research boat excitedly and followed it back into the seapen enclosure. He had lost 18 kg (10.8% of his prerelease weight), which was considered unsatisfactory, and he is now kept permanently in a large netted enclosure within a marina.

Mila was recaptured 28 February, and she was reported to have lost 23 kg (14.7% of her prerelease body weight), which was considered unsatisfactory.  She also is now kept permanently in the large netted enclosure. Her calf (Luka) presumably died.

One of the juveniles (Echo) was recaptured one week after release, having lost 10kg (8.5%) of her prerelease body weight, which was considered unsatisfactory. She too is now maintained permanently in the large netted enclosure. Frodo appeared to be in fine condition on 16 February. Nero was seen at sea on 31 January.

Several other sightings of these released dolphins (unidentified as to which ones) have been made as late as September 1992.

The authors report that, « The major reason for the ambiguity of the results was our inability to effectively track the dolphins whilst they were at sea. » Returned to native habitat. Nine dolphins; Captive 11 years; 3 recaptured, 1 presumably died, 2 followup successful, and 3 no followup.


 

1992. Matt, an adult male bottlenose dolphin was rehabilitated, freezebranded, and then released after 37 days at Mote Marine Laboratory’s facility (Gorzelany, 1992).  Within a matter of minutes he was associating with a mother-calf pair in the area. At least 12 sightings of Matt have been reported in the first nine months following release. Returned to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 37 days; followup successful.

1992. Annessa, a captive-born Atlantic bottle-nose dolphin held at the Dolphin Research Center in the Florida Keys, disappeared and was feared lost during a hurricane in August, 1992.

Annessa survived the hurricane, however, and was adopted by a pod of wild dolphins. She has been sighted numerous times – healthy an foraging on her own. One dolphin; Captive since birth; followup
successful.


1991. Rocky (male), Missie (female) and Silver (male) – three bottlenose dolphins released off Turks and Caicos Islands, after twenty, twenty-two, and fifteen years of captivity, respectively (Klinowska and Brown, 1985).

« In the acclimation seapen, they learned how to capture live fish » (McKenna, 1992).

Released September 1991. All have been resighted numerous times since then, and Silver has been seen as recently as early 1994. In several of the recent sightings, Silver was in the company of JoJo, a « friendly » dolphin that swims near Club Med at Providenciales, Turks and Caicos. Rocky and Missie were captured in the North Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico (probably off Florida), and Silver was captured off Taiwan in the Pacific.

Not returned to native habitat.

Note: This reintroduction was recently labelled as fraud by marine parks spokespeople in the United Kingdom, but this author is convinced that it was conducted responsibly and without intent to deceive.

Three dolphins; Captive 20, 22 and 15 years; followup tentatively successful.

 


1990. Echo (male) and Misha (male) – two adult bottlenose dolphins released intentionally after two years of research (Wells, 1991; Bassos, 1993), with extensive followup.

The dolphins had been captured in 1988 with the intention of studying aspects of their reintroduction following captivity. Released on 6 October 1990 off Bishop Harbor, Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity where they had been captured.

These two dolphins have been resighted numerous times (recently March, 1994), and they appear to have successfully reacclimated to the wild. Released to native habitat.

Two dolphins; Captive 2 years; followup successful.

 

 

1990. TT-652 « Budro », a male bottlenose dolphin captured 02/24/84 in Mississippi was inadvertently released by the U.S. Navy on 06/04/90 at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). Budro was at Key West, FL on 5/2/90.

No followup reported.

Not known if returned to native habitat. Veterinary records 3/29/90 indicate Budro exhibited anorexia, possible ulcer which was medicated; and 4/22/90 records indicate « animal well fleshed and healthy » at that time. One dolphin; Captive 4 years; no
followup.

 

 

1987. Joe (male) and Rosie (female) – two bottlenose dolphins released off Wassaw Island, Georgia, after seven years of captivity (Coyle and Hickman, 1988).

« All reports of their activity in the wild indicate that they are in good health and have associations with resident pods. » Released July 13, 1987. These dolphins were captured off Mississippi and released off Georgia.

Not returned to native habitat. Two dolphins; Captive 7 years; followup
successful.

 

Note: Dr. David Bain has suggested that Joe and Rosie may have been the carriers of disease which ravaged dolphins along east coast in 1987/88, but on review of the facts that seems improbable.

The massive die-off of dolphins along the east coast began off New Jersey in June 1987 before Joe and Rosie were released, and it progressed southward along the coast.

Strandings of dolphins did not occur off Georgia until year end. A retrospective analysis in 1993 indicates the die-off may have been due to a morbillivirus with environmental contaminants implicated in immune system failure. Phocine morbillivirus has been detected in New England since 1986 and
earlier.

 

 

1986. TT-658, « Echo », a female bottlenose dolphin captured 03/30/84 in Mississippi was inadvertently released 07/15/86 by the U.S.

Navy at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). On 2/24/86 Echo was stationed at NOSC, Hawaii. No followup reported. Not known if returned to native habitat. Veterinary records indicate nothing remarkable in her history. One dolphin; Captive 2+ years; no
followup.

 

 

1985. TT-672, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 09/06/84 in Mississippi was inadvertently released 08/02/85 by the U.S. Navy at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Not known if returned to native habitat. Veterinary records indicate NOSC San Diego. One dolphin; Captive 11 months; no followup.
1984. TT-#13, a female bottlenose dolphin captured 03/23/84 in Mississippi was released by the U.S. Navy ten days later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed released to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 10 days; no
followup.

 

 

1984. TT-#10, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 02/24/84 in Mississippi was released by the U.S. Navy twenty days later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Presumed released to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 20 days; no
followup.

 

 

1984. TT-#11, a female bottlenose dolphin captured 03/03/84 in Mississippi was released by the U.S. Navy twelve days later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported.

Presumed released to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 12 days; no followup.

 

 

1984. Nine bottlenose dolphins released after three months captivity for the filming of « Cocoon » by Fox Studios off Nassau, Bahamas. No official followup occurred. Twelve dolphins had reportedly been captured off Eleuthera, Bahamas (S. Claridge, pers. comm.). One died, two are reportedly now at UNEXSO, Freeport, Bahamas. Released to native habitat. Nine dolphins; Captive 3 months; no
followup.

 

 

1984. TT-#14, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 07/26/84 in Mississippi was intentionally released 08/14/84 by the U.S. Navy, presumably near the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Presumed released to native habitat. One dolphin; Captive 18 days; no
followup.

 

 

1984. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin captured 07/03/84 off the Florida panhandle was released 08/26/84 by the Gulfarium of Fort Walton Beach because it « would not adapt to captivity. »

No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 57 days; no
followup.

 

 

1983. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin captured 06/22/83 in Mississippi was released 07/07/83 by the Aquarium of Niagara Falls (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 15 days; no
followup.

 

 

1983. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin captured 07/27/83 by Sea World for Dr. Gerald Kooyman (Scripps Institute of Oceanography) was released 10/01/83, presumably near the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 2 months; no
followup.

 

 

1983. Two bottlenose dolphins were released in Mississippi sound approximately one month after capture by Marine Animal Productions, Inc. (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. Two dolphins; Captive 1 month; no
followup.

 

 

1983. Two Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were reported in the NMFS MMIR 08/03/93 to have been captured by Sea World and subsequently released. No followup reported. Presumably native reintroduction.

Two dolphins; Captive 2 weeks; no followup.

 

 

1982. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin was reported released in Mississippi Sound four days after capture by the Dinnes Memorial Veterinary Hospital in Saugus California (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 4 days; no
followup.

 

Note: It is interesting that the MMIR reports 45 bottlenose dolphins held by Dinnes Memorial Veterinary Hospital suddenly commencing in 1982 and extending until 1991 – 25 died, and the remaining were transferred to other organizations, eg. The Mirage in Las Vegas, Brookfield Zoo, National Aquarium in Baltimore, Mystic Aquarium, Marine Animal Productions, and Marineland Spain.

I telephoned the veterinary hospital on 17 August 1994 and was told by the receptionist that the dolphins they owned were leased to exhibitors in various states when they were held, and they no longer hold dolphins. The average time of survival for the dolphins that died in this « rent-a-dolphin » program was less than three years.

Deaths were attributed to such causes as: chlorine toxicity, palm fronds, oleander poisoning, sting ray spines, intestinal obstruction, pneumonia, and accidental
drowning.

 

 

1982. Eight Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were reported in the NMFS MMIR 08/03/93 to have been captured by Sea World, three died within ten days of capture of pneumonitis, pancreatitis and possible septicemia, and two dolphins were released. Two dolphins; Captive 9-12 days; no
followup.

 

 

1982. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin was released one month after capture by Marine Animal Productions, Inc. (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported.

Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 1 month; no followup.

 

 

1981. Eight Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were captured and held at Sea World of Florida for up to 90 days while they were used in experiments to monitor the development of freeze-brands. Released in the vicinity of capture site in Indian River, Florida and followup conducted by Sea World (Odell & Asper, 1990).

Native Reintroduction. Eight dolphins; Captive 90 days; followup successful.

 

Note: Although not reported by the authors, there were sixteen dolphins reported in the NMFS MMIR 08/03/93 to have been captured by Sea World in 1981, one of which died during capture, two died subsequently, and two were sent to the New England Aquarium.

 

 

1980. An adult male bottlenose dolphin was rehabilitated from stranding on Florida coast, and released by Miami Seaquarium after four months captivity. No followup occurred, but the dolphin was observed joining a large pod of dolphins after release. Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 4 months; no
followup.

 

 

1980. Two Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were captured and held at Sea World of Florida for up to 90 days while they were used in experiments to monitor the development of freeze-brands. Released in vicinity of capture site in Indian River, Florida and followup conducted by Sea World (Odell & Asper, 1990). Two dolphins; Captive 90 days; followup
successful.

 

Note: Although not reported by the authors, there were fifteen dolphins reported in NMFS MMIR 08/03/93 to have been captured by Sea World in 1980, of which seven were released up to 90 days later and five others subsequently died in captivity.

Native reintroduction.

 


 

 

1980. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin captured 07/22/80 at Rockport Texas by Adriatic Sea World was released 07/31/80 presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 9 days; no
followup.

 


 

 

1979. Two Pacific bottlenose dolphins (6 yr male, 8 yr female) permitted ocean access after four years of captivity at Sea Life Park in Hawaii (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

The dolphins gradually ventured further from their seapen, and eventually after four months of ocean access they chose to remain at sea.

No followup occurred, but it was assumed they had reintegrated into a local pod.

Native reintroduction. Two dolphins; Captive 4 years; no followup.

 


 

 

1979. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin was released 11/05/79 by Marine Animal Productions Inc. after being held in captivity for one week (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 7 days; no
followup.

 


 

 

1979. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin released after one month captivity by Marine World Africa USA (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 1 month; no
followup.

 


 

 

1979. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin released to Gulf of Mexico after two months captivity by Marineland Cote D’Azure, France (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 2 months; no
followup.

 


 

 

1978/79. Ten Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were captured between 23 August 1978 and 15 February 1979 and held at Sea World of Florida for up to 90 days while they were used in experiments to monitor the development of freeze-brands. Released at capture site in Indian River, Florida and followup monitoring was conducted by Sea World (Odell & Asper, 1990).

Native reintroduction. Ten dolphins; Captive 90 days; followup successful.

 

Note: Although not reported by the authors, three dolphins reported in NMFS MMIR 08/03/93 for this period died during or after capture.

 


 

 

1978. TT-#08, a female bottlenose dolphin captured 04/04/78 in Mississippi was released by the U.S. Navy the next day, presumable in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported.

Presumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 1 day; no followup.

 


 

1978. Four Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were captured by Sea World and released up to two months later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Assumed native reintroduction. Four dolphins; Captive 2 months; no
followup.

 


1978. One Pacific bottlenose dolphin was captured by Sea World and released ten days later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Assumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 10 days; no followup.


1978. One Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Leo Tg-558M) was captured for the US Navy on 20 January 1977 off Catalina Island, California and escaped 15 January 1978 off Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii where it « joined an indigenous herd (confirmed). »

One dolphin; Captive one year; followup apparently successful.

 

 

1977. TT-#07, a female bottlenose dolphin captured 08/19/77 in Florida was released five days later by the U.S. Navy, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Assumed native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 5 days; no
followup.

 

 

1977. Two female Atlantic bottlenose dolphins used for research project by Dr. Lou Herman in Hawaii were illegally released off Oahu, Hawaii after more than five years of captivity (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup occurred. Non-native reintroduction. Two dolphins; Captive 5 years; no
followup.

 

Note: DNA studies of the Hawaiian Pacific host population may reveal useful information concerning the success or failure of this release.

 

 

1977. Seven Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were captured by Sea World and released up to three months later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. Seven dolphins; Captive 90 days; no
followup.

 

 

1975. TT-495, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 07/11/74 in Mississippi was inadvertently released by the U.S. Navy 10/10/75 at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93).

No followup reported. Unknown reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 15 months; no
followup.

 

 

1975. TT-499, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 07/13/74 in Mississippi was inadvertently released by the U.S. Navy 08/25/75 at an undisclosed location (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Unknown reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 13 months; no
followup.

 

 

1975. One Atlantic bottlenose dolphin captured 05/10/75 in Mississippi by Marine Animal Productions Inc. was released 05/23/75, and another captured 10/19/75 was released 11/05/75 because they were  » not adapting. » (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction.

One dolphin; Captive 13-16 days; no followup.

 

 

1974. TT-#02, a male bottlenose dolphin captured 07/09/74 in Mississippi was released by the U.S. Navy six days later, presumably in the vicinity of the capture site (NMFS MMIR 08/03/93). Three additional dolphins captured the same day were also released.

No followup reported. Presumed native reintroduction. Four dolphins; Captive 6 days; no
followup.

 

 

1974. Liberty and Florida – two bottlenose dolphins released off Eleuthera in the Bahamas after two years of captivity. Prior to release, the dolphins were readapted to feeding on live fish, freeze branded, and airlifted to the Bahamas for release. One of these may now (1994) be the dolphin known as JoJo off Turks and Caicos. (McKenna, 1992).

Non-native reintroduction.

Two dolphins; Captive 2 years; no followup.

 

 

1974. Six bottlenose dolphins released after one and a half years in captivity for the filming of « Day of the Dolphin » off Marsh Harbour, Abaco Bahamas.

No official followup occurred, however local residents reported seeing some of these distinctively marked individuals up to two years later.

The dolphins had been captured off Key Largo, Florida and released in the Bahamas (Dr. Jesse White, pers. comm.). Non-native
reintroduction.

 

Note: DNA techniques could determine whether there was any genetic influence by this reintroduction. Six dolphins; Captive 18
months; followup?

 

 

1972. Gussie (male) – an adult bottlenose dolphin released in Biscayne Bay, Florida after two years of captivity at Miami Seaquarium. Reintroduction because of unsuitability for training. No followup occurred. Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 2 years; no
followup.

 

 

1972. Opo (female) – a bottlenose dolphin returned to original capture site in Biscayne Bay, Florida after one year of captivity at Miami Seaquarium. No followup occurred, but the dolphin had readapted to diet of live fish and was allowed to swim away.

Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 1 year; no followup.

 

 

1972. Two bottlenose dolphins used for behavioral studies at Mote Marine Laboratory were marked and released after less than one year in captivity (Irvine and Wells, 1972).

No followup occurred. Native reintroduction. Two dolphins; Captive 1 year; no
followup.

 

 

1970. Adult female bottlenose « diseased » dolphin released in Biscayne Bay following stillbirth after unreported number of years in captivity at Miami Seaquarium (Dr. Jesse White, pers. comm.). No followup occurred, but dolphin was observed swimming in Biscayne Bay following release. Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive ? ;no
followup.

 

 

1970’s? « A single mature male dolphin was released from an Aquarium at Port Elizabeth Museum in South Africa and although no specific effort was made to track the animal he was sighted on several occasions post release (G.Ross, Pers. comm.) » Ref. Gales and Waples, 1993. One dolphin; Captive ? years; no
followup.

 

 

1967. Three or four dolphins released off Key Biscayne, Florida by Dr. John Lilly after several years of communications experiments.

Reference personal communication from Rosi Løvdal, who had seen the dolphins numerous times while Dr. Lilly was conducting experiments, and whose son (Scott Kurth) was present at the release.

Rosi reportedly observed one of the released animals off West Andros in 1973, and identified it by a distinctive notch on the top leading edge of the dorsal fin. She also reports that the dolphin appeared to have recognized her, as well.

Native reintroduction. Three or Four dolphins; Captive ? years; followup ?

 

 

1966. Dal (male) and Suwa (female) – two bottlenose dolphins released in Florida to open lagoon after two to four years of captivity, and fed by human caretaker for more than twenty years.

Dal died of natural causes in 1986, and Suwa injured a young male swimmer in ocean in 1987, and was subsequently no longer allowed out of lagoon.

Pet relationship, not complete reintroduction.

 

 

1964. Pedro – an adult male bottlenose dolphin released by Miami Seaquarium after approximately ten years of captivity.

No official followup occurred, but the dolphin was observed swimming in Biscayne Bay following release. Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive 10 years; no
followup.

 

 

1960’s. Dolly (female) – Atlantic bottlenose dolphin released by US Navy near Key West, Florida following unreported length of time in captivity (Lockyer, 1990). No followup occurred, but this dolphin was reported for many years to be sociable with people in the Florida Keys. Assumed Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive ? years; no followup.
1960’s or 1970’s. Dee-Dee – an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin released by Hugh Downs following unreported length of time in captivity (Miami News Weekender, May 16, 1987). Dr. Henry Truby (Professor of Pediatrics, University of Miami) reported, « We released a number of dolphins with no problems. »… « We kept trying to release Hugh Down’s dolphin and he’d come back home like a boomerang. He’d be waiting for us at the dock. » Assumed Native reintroduction. One dolphin; Captive ? years; no
followup.

 

(….)

 

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